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Courses in Native American Studies (NAS)

Lower Division

1. Introduction to Native American Studies (4)

Lecture—3 hours; discussion—1 hour. Introduction to Native American Studies with emphasis upon basic concepts relating to Native American historical and political development. GE credit: SocSci, Div | ACGH, DD, SS, WC, WE.—F, W, S. Crum, Middleton

5. Introduction to Native American Literature (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: completion of Subject A requirement. Intensive focus on analysis of Native American literary texts, with frequent writing assignments to develop critical thinking and composition skills. GE credit: ArtHum, Div, Wrt | AH, DD, OL, WE.—F, W, S, Su.

7. Indigenous and Minority Languages (4)

Lecture—3 hours; discussion—1 hour. Survey of the status of indigenous, immigrant, and other minority languages in the Americas and around the world. Topics include linguistic diversity, language endangerment and revitalization, heritage language maintenance in immigrant communities, and language change due to transcultural interactions. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci, Div, Wrt | AH or SS, DD, WC, WE.—F. (F.) Spence

10. Native American Experience (4)

Lecture—3 hours; discussion—1 hour. Introduction to the diverse cultures of Native American peoples from North, Central, and South America. Emphasis on Native American voices in the expression of cultural views and in the experience of conflicting values. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci, Div, Wrt | AH or SS, DD, WC, WE.—F, W, S, Su. Hernandez-Avila, Mendoza

12. Native American/Indigenous Film (4)

Lecture—3 hours; film viewing; discussion—1 hour. Survey and analysis of the visual colonization of Native American peoples and the contemporary responses by Native American/Indigenous filmmakers claiming visual sovereignty. Examines a range of filmic genres including documentary, features, shorts, festivals, tv and internet screening. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci | ACGH, AH or SS, DD, VL, WC, WE.—Tsinhnahjinnie

32. Native American Music and Dance (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Introduction to the music and dance of the native peoples of the Americas. Students will study secular native music and dance from a cross-section of regions and tribes. GE credit: Div.—F. 

33. Introduction to Native American Art (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Introduction to Native American Art from throughout North America, inclusive of traditional forms, techniques and designs in a range of media including ceramics, basketry, fiberwork, carving, painting, sculpture and photography within a context of social and political history. GE credit: ArtHum, Div | ACGH, AH or SS, DD, OL, VL, WE.—F. Tsinhnahjinnie

34. Native American Art Studio (4)

Lecture—2 hours; studio—6 hours. Limited enrollment. Studio projects to be influenced by contemporary and traditional Native American arts. Examples of designs and media presented in lectures will be of indigenous origin. Introduction and familiarized with various materials and techniques. GE credit: ArtHum | ACGH, AH, DD, OL, VL, WC.—Tsinhnahjinnie

46. Orientation to Research in Native American Studies (4)

Lecture/discussion—3 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: Native American Studies major or minor, or consent of instructor. Limited enrollment. Introduces students to basic research resources pertinent to Native American subjects available in the region, including libraries, archives, museums, etc. Emphasis is upon learning to use documentary resources or other collections of data. Students will carry out individual projects. GE credit: SocSci, Div, Wrt.

98. Directed Group Study (1-5)

Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (P/NP grading only.)

99. Special Study for Undergraduates (1-5)

Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (P/NP grading only.)

Upper Division

101. Contemporary Native American Art (4)

Lecture—3 hours; extensive writing. Examination of contemporary artworks by selected Native American and Indigenous Master artists, in a wide range of media, including ceramics, metal arts, photography, video, painting, installation and performance within a context of political and social histories. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum, Div | ACGH, AH or SS, DD, OL, VL, WE.—Tsinhnahjinnie

107. Special Topics in Native American Languages (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Investigation of various subjects in contemporary and historical Native American language studies. May be repeated for credit when a different topic is studied. GE credit: Div.—W, S. Mendoza, Spence

108. Indigenous Languages of California (4)

Lecture/discussion—3 hours; term paper. Survey of the indigenous languages of the California region: linguistic prehistory, languages at first European contact, subsequent language loss, current efforts at language and cultural revitalization, indigenous languages of recent immigrants to California. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci | ACGH, AH or SS, DD, WE.—W. Spence

110A. Quechua Language and Society, Beginning Level 1 (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Not open to students who took course 107 in the Fall quarter of 2007. Introduction to Quechua language and society emphasizing the practical use of the language. Provides the student with some basic Quechua communication skills and with an initial knowledge about contemporary Andean society and the status of Quechua language today. GE credit: SocSci | SS.—Mendoza

110B. Quechua Language and Society, Beginning Level 2 (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 110A. Second Level of the teaching of Quechua language and society. Emphasis on development of conversational and reading skills. Continuation of the study of aspects of contemporary Andean society and the status of Quechua language today. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci | SS.—W. Mendoza

110C. Quechua Language and Society, Intermediate Level 1 (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: courses 110A and B. Third level of the teaching of Quechua language and society. Emphasis on development of conversational and reading skills. Introduction to more complex grammatical structures. Continuing the study of contemporary Andean society and the status of Quechua language today. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci | SS.—W. Mendoza

110D. Quechua Language and Society, Intermediate Level 2 (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 110A, B and C. Fourth level of the teaching of Quechua language and society. Emphasis on complex structural patterns while emphasizing conversational skills and improving reading competence. Study of different sociopolitical processes that have affected Andean identity and the status of Quechua language. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci | SS.—S. Mendoza

115. Native Americans in the Contemporary World (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing or consent of instructor. Important issues facing Native Americans in the contemporary world. Focus primarily on the diverse ways of life, histories and realities of indigenous people throughout the Americas as they develop their own cultural and political institutions. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci, Div | AH or SS, ACGH, DD, OL, WE.—W. Crum

116. Native American Traditional Governments (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 1; Anthropology 2. Study of selected Native American Tribal Governments, confederations, leagues, and alliance systems. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci, Div.

117. Native American Governmental Decision Making (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 116, Political Science 2; Anthropology 123 recommended. Native American governmental and community decision making with emphasis on federal and state programs, tribal sovereignty, current political trends and funding for tribal services. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci, Div.

118. Native American Politics (4)

Lecture—3 hours; discussion—1 hour. Prerequisite: upper division standing or consent of instructor. Examination of the various interest groups and movements found among Native people and how they relate to the determination of Indian affairs. Study of political action available to Native groups, and local communities, along with relevant theory relating to underdevelopment. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci | ACGH, DD, SS, WC, WE.—Crum

119. Introduction to Federal Indian Law (4)

Lecture—3 hours; term paper. Introduction to the foundational cases and statutes of federal Indian law, from European Contact through the 20th century. GE credit: SocSci | ACGH, SS, WE.—S. Middleton

120. Ethnopolitics of South American Indians (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 1, 10 or 55. Social, political, cultural movements of indigenous South Americans in response to establishment, expansion of European colonialism, post-colonial nation-states. Ethnopolitical processes developed through interactions between Indians, Euroamericans. Socioethnographic analysis of main indigenous areas and the development of national societies. GE credit: SocSci, Div, Wrt.

121. Corporate Colonialism (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 1, 10 or 12 encouraged, but not required. Price of progress and modernity for native and non-native people. History of the corporation and neoliberalism, military and intelligence agencies, debt, Taylorism, education institutions, media, and law. Discussion of alternatives advocated by contemporary and indigenous social movements. GE credit: SocSci | ACGH, DD, SS, WC, WE.—W. (W.) Grandia

122. Native American Community Development (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 1 or 10. Application of community development theory and techniques to the development problems of Native American communities. (Former course 161.) Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ACGH, DD, OL, SS, WE.

123. Native Foods and Farming of the Americas (4)

Lecture/discussion—2 hours. Prerequisite: course 7A concurrently; completion of course 16C or demonstrate required proficiency level on diagnostic exam. Crop domestication, agrodiversity, and cuisines of the Americas. Cultural and social history of native American foods like maize, potatoes, quinoa, chocolate, peppers, beans, avocados, etc. Discussion of socio-economic, environmental, legal challenges facing indigenous and peasant farmers today. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SciEng or SocSci, Wrt | DD, OL, SE or SS, WC.—S. (S.) Grandia

125. Performance and Culture Among Native Americans (4)

Lecture—3 hours; film viewing—3 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing in division of humanities or social sciences or consent of instructor. Interdisciplinary study of public expressive forms among Native Americans. Comparison and analysis of music, dances, rituals, and dramas from throughout North, Central, and South America in their social and cultural contexts. Not open for credit to students who have completed Music 125. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci | AH or SS, WC, WE.—Mendoza

130A. Native American Ethno-Historical Development (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing or consent of instructor. Study of Native American ethno-history in North America before 1770s. GE credit: SocSci, Div, Wrt | ACGH, DD, SS, WC, WE.—F. Crum

130B. Native American Ethno-Historical Development (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing or consent of instructor. Study of Native American ethno-history in North America, 1770-1890. GE credit: SocSci, Div, Wrt | ACGH, DD, SS, WE.—W. Crum

130C. Native American Ethno-Historical Development (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing or consent of instructor. Study of Native American ethno-history in North America after 1890. GE credit: SocSci, Div, Wrt | ACGH, DD, SS, WE.—S. Crum

133. Ethnohistory of Native People of Mexico and Central America (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 1, 10 or 55. Ethnohistorical development of pre-colonial, colonial, post-colonial Mexican and Central American indigenous people; the impact of economic and political factors on the process of cultural adaptation. Attention is given to the questions of nation-building, forced assimilation, indigenous resistance, organized political responses. GE credit: SocSci, Div.

133A. Ethnoshistory of Native Peoples of Mexico and Central America to 1500 (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: course 1 or course 10 or consent of instructor. Ethnohistorical development of the indigenous peoples of Mexico and Central America up to and including the earliest period of European contact. Focus is on indigenous written historical records of the Maya, Mixtec, and Nahuatl peoples. May be repeated one time for credit. This course can be repeated provided the student chooses a new topic for the term paper/project and for the PowerPoint presentations. The material is so extensive that more than one exposure to it can be very beneficial to students wanting to focus on ancient Mesoamerica. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci, Div | AH or SS, VL, WC, WE.—S. 

133B. Ethnohistory of Native Peoples of Mexico and Central America 1500 to 2000 (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: course 1 or 10, or consent of instructor. Ethnohistory of indigenous peoples of Mexico and Central America from 1500 to contemporary times. Focus on social and cultural dynamics, particularly the role of indigenous people in the process of nation-state building in Mexico and Central America. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci, Div, Wrt | AH, OL, SS, WE.

134. Race, Culture, and Nation (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing or consent of instructor. Exploration of complexities of Native American racial, cultural and national identities and alliances. Study of tribal and federal citizenship, mixed descent and diasporic people(s), claims to resources, ethnic fraud and contemporary movements of cultural resurgence and political sovereignty and self-determination. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci | ACGH, DD, SS, WE.—W (W.) Perea

135. Gender Construction in Native Societies (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing or consent of instructor. Historical and traditional Native American constructions of feminine and masculine genders as well as third, fourth, and fifth genders. Examines gender roles and statuses. Addresses the problems with contemporary terminologies and impacts of colonization on contemporary constructions of gender identities. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci | AH or SS, DD, OL, WE.—Perea

146. Orientation to Research in Native American Studies (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: Native American Studies major or minor, or consent of instructor. Limited enrollment. Introduction to basic research resources pertinent to Native American subjects available in the region, including libraries, archives, museums, etc. Emphasis on learning to use documentary resources or other collections of data. Students will carry out individual projects. GE credit: SocSci | ACGH, DD, SS, WE.—W. Crum

157. Native American Religion and Philosophy (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Religious and philosophical traditions of Native American/indigenous peoples of the Americas. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum, Div | AH, OL, WE.—Hernández-Ávila

161. California Indian Environmental Policy I (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: course 1 or course 10 or consent of instructor. Contemporary California Indian environmental policy issues, with a focus on water, minerals, contamination, and alliance-building. Issues will be placed within historical and political context, drawing on theories of Native environmental ethics, environmental justice, and Federal Indian law. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ACGH, DD, SS, WE.—Middleton

162. California Indian Environmental Policy II (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours; term paper. Contemporary California Indian environmental policy issues, with a focus on planning, site protection, and collaborative structures. Issues will be placed within historical and political context, drawing on theories of Native environmental ethics, environmental justice, and Federal Indian law. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: SocSci | ACGH, DD, SS, WE.—Middleton

180. Native American Women (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 1, 10, or Women's Studies 50. Native American women's life experiences, cross-cultural comparisons of gender roles, and Native women's contemporary feminist thought. Utilizes texts from literature, social science, and autobiography/biography. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci | AH or SS, DD, OL, WE.—W.

181A. Native American Literature (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: one from course 5, English 3, Comparative Literature 1, 2, 3. Works of fiction (short story, novel) by contemporary Native American authors, with an emphasis on writers from the United States. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum, Div, Wrt | ACGH, AH, DD, OL, WE.—Hernández-Avila

181B. Native American Literature (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: one from course 5, english 3, Comparative Literature 1, 2, 3. Works by or about Native Americans including non-fiction novels, biographies and autobiographies. Explore ways Native Americans create and recreate their culture through the creative process in literature. Examine from a critical perspective autobiographies and testimonial literature. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum, Div, Wrt | AH, DD, OL, WE.—Hernandez-Avila

181C. Contemporary Native American Poetry (4)

Lecture—4 hours. Works of poetry by contemporary Native American/indigenous poets, with some attention to traditional cultural poetic expressions. GE credit: ArtHum, Div, Wrt | AH, DD, OL, WE.—F, W, S. Hernández-Avila

184. Contemporary Indigenous Literature of Mexico (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: course 1 or 10; course 181A or 181C recommended; reading knowledge of Spanish required. Contemporary indigenous literature of Mexico, with a focus on the genres (poetry, fiction, drama, essay); analysis of cultural, historical, and spiritual themes, imagery, styles and performances; biographies of and influences on the Native writers themselves. Offered irregularly. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci | AH or SS, OL, WC.—Su. Hernández-Avila

185. Native American Literature in Performance (4)

Performance instruction—4 hours. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Performance of contemporary Native American literature onstage, through adaptations of selected literature as well as the creation of original pieces. May be repeated up to four units for credit. Offered in alternate years. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci | AH, DD, OL, WC.—Hernández-Avila

188. Special Topics in Native American Literary Studies (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: upper division standing and one of the following recommended: course 5, 10, 181A, 181C. Special topics drawn from Native American literature. May be repeated for credit when topic differs. Offered irregularly. GE credit: ArtHum, Div, Wrt | AH, DD, OL, WE.—S, Su. Hernández-Ávila

190. Seminar in Native American Studies (2)

Discussion—2 hours. Prerequisite: senior standing. Seminar of critical issues faced by Native American people. (P/NP grading only.)

191. Topics in Native American Studies (4)

Lecture/discussion—4 hours. Prerequisite: upper division standing. Selected topics in Native American Studies related to indigenous knowledges and worldviews from a historical, cultural, hemispheric perspective. May be repeated for credit when topic differs and/or when offered by a different instructor. Offered irregularly. GE credit: ArtHum or SocSci. Div | AH or SS, DD, OL, WE.—F, W, S. Hernandez-Avila

192. Internship (1-12)

Internship—1 hour. Prerequisite: enrollment dependent on availability of intern position in Native American Studies or the CN Gorman Museum, with priority to Native American Studies minors/majors; consent of instructor. Restricted to upper division standing. Supervised internship in the CN Gorman Museum, community, and institutional settings related to Native American concerns. May be repeated up to 12 units for credit including 192 and other internships taken in other departments and institutions. (P/NP grading only.) GE credit: ArtHum | AH.—F, W, S, Su. Tsinhnahjinnie

194HA. Special Studies for Honors Students (4)

Independent study—12 hours. Prerequisite: senior qualifying for honors. Directed reading, research and writing culminating in the completion of a senior honors thesis or project under direction of faculty adviser. (Deferred grading only, pending completion of sequence.)

194HB. Special Studies for Honors Students (4)

Independent study—12 hours. Prerequisite: senior qualifying for honors. Directed reading, research and writing culminating in the completion of a senior honors thesis or project under direction of faculty adviser. (Deferred grading only, pending completion of sequence.)

195. Field Experience in Native American Studies (12)

Field work—36 hours. Prerequisite: senior standing and major in Native American Studies, completion of lower division major requirements, and course 161. Field work with governmental and community groups, under supervision of faculty adviser and sponsor. Knowledge acquired in other courses to be applied in field work. (P/NP grading only.)—F, W, S.

196. Senior Project in Native American Studies (4)

Discussion—1 hour; independent study—3 hours. Prerequisite: senior standing and major in Native American Studies, course 195 (may be taken concurrently), and consent of instructor. Guided research project that enables student to apply the theory and research principles from major course work. Final product is to be a major senior project or thesis. (P/NP grading only.)—F, W, S. 

197TC. Community Tutoring in Native American Studies (1-5)

Tutorial—3-15 hours. Prerequisite: consent of major committee; upper division standing with major in Native American Studies. Supervise tutoring in community. (P/NP grading only.)—F, W, S.

198. Directed Group Study (1-5)

Prerequisite: upper division standing; consent of instructor. (P/NP grading only.)

199. Special Study for Advanced Undergraduates (1-5)

Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (P/NP grading only.)

Graduate

200. Basic Concepts in Native American Studies (4)

Seminar—4 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing and consent of instructor. Analysis of the characteristics of the discipline of Native American Studies. Concentration is on both traditional and contemporary native scholarship and thought as well as the theoretical and methodological consequences derived from application of these ideas. Offered in alternate years.Crum, Hernández-Ávila, Middleton

202. Advanced Topics in Native American Studies (4)

Seminar—4 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing. Advanced study of selected topics or themes relevant to the field of Native American studies. Topics will be announced at the time of offering. May be repeated for credit when topic differs.—W, S. Hernández-Ávila, Perea

207. Leadership Skills and Strategies in California Language Documentation & Revitalization (4)

Seminar—3 hours; term paper. Introduction to the indigenous languages of the Americas, with a focus on California; an examination of how contemporary Native communities document and revitalize their heritage languages. Learn to assist and administer language programs.—S. Spence

212. Community Development for Sovereignty and Autonomy (4)

Seminar—4 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing and consent of instructor. Examines a sample of contemporary indigenous communities from south, central and north America with the goal of understanding and evaluating the strategies adopted by Native American communities to develop and implement forms of sovereignty or autonomous self-management. Offered in alternate years.—Grandia

213. Native Criminality and Deviance (4)

Seminar—4 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing. Examination of "deviance" in Native communities with focus on Native criminality in North America. Analysis of the concept of deviance from several different world views. Readings from a range of theories to incorporate varying theoretical perspective on criminality and deviance.

217. Public Law 83-280: Colonial Termination (4)

Seminar—4 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing, including school of law students. Examination of the signature law of the Termination Era, Public Law 83-280. Discussions to include termination, societal conformity, political consent, jurisdiction, self-determination & decolonization, and colonial relationship between Native Peoples and the United States.—F, W, S. Crum

220. Colonialism, Neoliberalism, and Indigenous Self-Determination (4)

Seminar—3 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: graduate standing. History, political economy and legacies of imperial/colonial systems. Continuities and discontinuities with corporate globalization and neoliberalism. Focus on resistance and self-determination of indigenous peoples, but with comparison to other groups. Offered in alternate years.—Grandia

224. Performance in the Americas (4)

Seminar—3 hours; term paper. Prerequisite: graduate standing. Ethnomusicological and anthropological approaches to study of public performance in the Americas. New ways of looking at music, dance, rituals and other forms of public expressive forms normally called "folklore" or "popular culture." Not open for credit to students who have completed Music 224. (Former course Music 224.)—Mendoza

233. Visual Sovereignty (4)

Seminar—3 hours; film viewing—2 hours; term paper. Extensively examine the field of contemporary Native American and Indigenous photography, film and performance through research of artworks, writings by artists, theorists, and material in museum collections. May be repeated two times for credit when topic differs. Offered in alternate years.—Tsinhnahjinnie

237. Native American Art Collections and Museums (4)

Seminar—3 hours; term paper. Research and examination of regional Native American art held in museums and other public institutions, as well as privately-held collections. Includes onsite viewing and research of museum collections and archives. Offered in alternate years.—Tsinhnahjinnie

240. Native American Public Health: Topics and Issues (4)

Seminar—3 hours; term paper. Introduction to Native American public health issues and contributing causal factors (including environmental justice and historical trauma); the dimensions of cultural competency in diagnosis and service provision; the structure of Native health care institutions; and debates in Native treatment modalities.—W. Middleton

246. Native American/Indigenous Research Methodologies (4)

Seminar—3 hours; term paper. Introduction to advanced methodologies currently influencing research in Native American Studies and amongst Indigenous communities. Students will develop an original project and course assignments will guide them through the process of research design and implementation. Offered in alternate years.—W. (W.) Perea

250. Indigenous Critique of Classic Maya Ethnographies (4)

Seminar—4 hours. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Construction of the Maya world through ethnographic writing during the present century. Deconstruction of ethnographies about the Mayans considering the modern theories and social/anthropological critiques of modern ethnographies. Offered in alternate years.

280. Ethnohistorical Theory and Method (4)

Seminar—3 hours; term paper. Discussion of the ethnohistorical method; the utilization of diverse types of data, especially documentary sources, to reconstruct socio-cultural history. Particular attention to the applied area of ethnohistory in the solution of contemporary social problems. Offered in alternate years.—Crum

298. Group Study for Graduate Students (1-5)

Prerequisite: graduate standing, consent of instructor. (S/U grading only.)

299. Special Study for Graduate Students (1-12)

Prerequisite: graduate standing, consent of instructor. (S/U grading only.)

Professional

396. Teaching Assistant Training Practicum (1-4)

Prerequisite: graduate standing. May be repeated for credit. (S/U grading only.)—F, W, S. 

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Updated: November 21, 2017 12:17 PM